Mitochondria and cell research has been advanced by numerous applications of O2k high-resolution respirometry (HRR). HRR is based on the OROBOROS O2k, combining chamber design, application of oxygen-tight materials, electrochemical and optical sensors, Peltier-temperature control and software features (DatLab) to obtain the unique sensitive and quantitative resolution of oxygen concentration and oxygen flux, with a closed-chamber or open-chamber mode of operation (TIP2k). Standardized calibration of the polarographic oxygen sensor (static sensor calibration), calibration of the sensor response time (dynamic sensor calibration), and evaluation of instrumental background oxygen flux (systemic flux compensation) provide the experimental basis for high accuracy of quantitative results and quality control in HRR. The most important extension to O2k-MultiSensor systems is the O2k-Fluorometer.
MitoPedia O2k and high-resolution respirometry: DatLab
What is an Oxygraph?
- O2k: The O2k measures oxygen (dioxygen, O2) as a gas dissolved in aqueous solution.
- With the O2k, a graph is displayed not only of oxygen concentration over time, but of respiration (oxygen consumption, oxygen flux) of biological and biochemical samples.
- An Oxygraph is not used for measurement of oxygen concentration in a tissue, but for high-resolution analysis of respiratory activity of biological or biochemical samples transferred into the experimental chamber.
- Specific substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration (SUIT) protocols are applied in studies of cell respiration or mitochondrial activity. In such experiments, quantitative information is obtained on selected biochemical pathways, particularly of the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria and bacteria. Comprehensive OXPHOS analysis leads us beyond the highly informative process of oxygen consumption, when high-resolution respirometry is combined with O2k-MultiSensor Modules to measure simultaneously the production of reactive oxygen species or mitochondrial membrane potential, nitric oxide production, acid-base balance or calcium with O2k-Fluorometry or ion selective electrodes. In the O2k, these bioenergetic parameters are always evaluated in combination with the measurement of oxygen concentration and respiration.
- O2k: The O2k has two experimental chambers (k: Kammern, German for chambers). Why 2 ml?
- Power-O2k: Several O2k units are operated simultaneously (P1, P2, ..) to combine high-resolution respirometry with high-ouput.
MitoPedia: O2k and high-resolution respirometry