You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason:
The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users.
= Basal respiration in physiology, cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial physiology =
|title=Gnaiger E (2013) Basal respiration in physiology, cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial physiology. Mitochondr Physiol Network 2013-07-07.
|info=[[Basal respiration|MitoPedia Open Access]]
|abstract='''Basal respiration''' is well defined in physiology. Terminology in mitochondrial physiology gains quality by reference to established concepts.
|mipnetlab=AT Innsbruck Gnaiger E
|preparations=Intact cells, Permeabilized cells, Permeabilized tissue, Homogenate, Isolated mitochondria
== Definition of basal metabolism in mammals and man ==
::::* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basal_metabolic_rate Definition in Wikipedia]
::::* Blaxter 1962  p. 79 f: "It has long been realized that if an animal is given no food and certain other conditions are met, a measurement of heat production represents that animal's minimal energy demand. Measurments of this type are called basal metabolism determinations, and the conditions for the measurement are, firstly, that the animal should be in a post-absorptive state, secondly, that it should be in a state of muscular repose though not asleep and, lastly, that the environment in which the measurement is made should be neither so hot nor so cold as to cause and increase in the metabolism. This last condition means that the animal should be in a 'thermoneutral' environment." .. "In man, basal metabolism is measured with the subject in repose but not asleep. Sleep during fasting depresses metabolism by about 7%." .. "With man, an overnight fast is sufficient to achieve a post-absorptive state and to reduce metabolism to a basal level. Indeed it is even permissible for clinical purposes to take a very slight ultra-continental breakfast before the measurement is made, since it has little effect on the metabolism determined a few hours later."
== States and rates ==
=== Respiratory states: from physiology to cellular and mitochondrial respiration ===
::::* '''Standard respiration''' refers to oxygen consumption measured with minimal motor activity, frequently made on anesthetized animals (Prosser, Brown 1961 ).
::::* '''Routine respiration''' is usually higher than standard or basal respiration due to the oxygen consumption required to sustain various routine activities, not restricted to locomotory activity, but including the effects of food or substrate availability, growth conditions. In living cells, [[ROUTINE respiration]] varies as a function of cell cycle and substrate supply ([5,6]).
::::* '''Resting respiration''' in cells and mitochondrial preparations may refer to the [[LEAK respiration|LEAK]] state of minimum respiration (inhibition of phosphorylation, e.g. by oligomycin or deprivation of ADP]. If 'basal' is taken as 'minimum' (e.g. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basal_body_temperature basal body temperature] is the lowest body temperature attained during rest), then '''basal respiration''' in cells and mitochondria is the minimum respiration in the LEAK state [7,8]. A recently proposed terminology uses the term 'basal respiration' to describe ROUTINE respiration of living cells, which proceeds at an intermediate rather than minimum ATP demand . This definition lacks physiological context, is confusing, and its use is discouraged .
::::* [[LEAK respiration]] is the energy expenditure required mainly to compensate for the proton leak through the inner mitochondrial membrane, but additionally including energy expenditure caused by proton slip and cation cycling through the inner mitochondrial membrane in general [7,8]. LEAK or basal respiration in mitochondrial preparations is obtained after inhibition of phosphorylation or in the absence of ADP in [[Electron-transfer-pathway state|ET-pathway competent substrate states]] . LEAK or basal respiration is measured in living cells after inhibition of phosphorylation (e.g. oligomycin) and should be corrected for [[residual oxygen consumption]] (ROX ).
'''»''' [[MitoPedia: Respiratory states]] [[Image:L.jpg|link=LEAK respiration|LEAK]] [[Image:R.jpg|link=ROUTINE respiration|ROUTINE]] [[Image:P.jpg|link=OXPHOS capacity|OXPHOS]] [[Image:E.jpg|link=ET capacity|ET capacity]] [[Image:ROX.jpg|link=Residual oxygen consumption|ROX]]
=== Metabolic energy flow, flux, and rate ===
:::: The term metabolic 'rate' is frequently used for energy flow or metabolic [[flux]]. Energy [[flow]] ([[oxygen flow]]) is system-specific quantity related to a defined system, and expressed per system (per individual organism, per million cells, or per experimental system). Metabolic [[flux]] ([[oxygen flux]]) is a system size-specific quantity, expressed per kg body weight, per volume, or per surface area of the body .
== References ==
:::# Blaxter KL 1962. The energy metabolism of ruminants. Hutchinson, London.
:::# [[Gnaiger_1990_Biochim Biophys Acta|Gnaiger, Kemp 1990 Biochim Biophys Acta]]
:::# [[Larsen_2011_FASEB J]]
:::# Prosser CL, Brown FA 1961. Comparative animal physiology. Saunders.
:::# [[Gnaiger 2008 POS]]
:::# [[Pesta 2012 Methods Mol Biol|Pesta, Gnaiger 2012 Methods Mol Biol]]
:::# [[Gnaiger 2009 Int J Biochem Cell Biol]]
:::# [[Gnaiger 2020 BEC MitoPathways]]
:::# [[Brand 2011 Biochem J|Brand, Nicholls 2011 Biochem J]]
:::# [[Gnaiger 1993 Pure Appl Chem]]
:::* [[Sjoedin 1996 Med Sci Sports Exerc]]
:::* [[Melzer 2011 Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol]]
Save page Show preview Show changes Cancel