Cabral-Costa MitoFit 2022
|Cabral-Costa JV, Kowaltowski AJ (2022) Mitochondrial Ca2+ handling as a cell signaling hub: lessons from astrocyte function. https://doi.org/10.26124/mitofit:2022-0027|
» MitoFit Preprints 2022.27.
Abstract: Astrocytes are a heterogenous population of macroglial cells spread throughout the central nervous system with diverse functions, expression signatures, and intricate morphologies. Their subcellular compartments contain a distinct range of mitochondria, with functional microdomains exhibiting widespread activities, such as controlling local metabolism and Ca2+ signaling. Ca2+ is an ion of utmost importance, both physiologically and pathologically, and participates in critical central nervous system processes, including synaptic plasticity, neuron-astrocyte integration, excitotoxicity, and mitochondrial physiology and metabolism. The mitochondrial Ca2+ handling system is formed by the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter complex (MCUc), which mediates Ca2+ influx, and the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCLX), responsible for most mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux, as well as additional components, including the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP). Over the last decades, mitochondrial Ca2+ handling has been shown to be key for brain homeostasis, acting centrally in physiopathological processes such as astrogliosis, astrocyte-neuron activity integration, energy metabolism control, and neurodegeneration. In this review we discuss the current state of knowledge of the mitochondrial Ca2+ handling system molecular composition, highlighting its impact on astrocytic homeostasis.
• Keywords: astrocytes; mitochondria; calcium signalling; MCU; NCLX; metabolism • Bioblast editor: Tindle-Solomon L • O2k-Network Lab: BR Sao Paulo Kowaltowski AJ